What is the Stith Thompson Motif Index?
Just as the early publications of folktale collections led folklorists to realize that the same tales existed in different times and in different countries, it also led to the realization that there were certain details in folktales that showed up in many different tales. Some of these details were characters, such as the wicked stepmother or the wicked witch, while others were plot details, such as the importance of the number three, or the fact that trolls turn to stone when they are caught by the sunlight. Folklorists call these details motifs, and in 1955 Stith Thompson compiled a five volume list of these narrative elements, and a one volume index, into the Motif Index. Tales Online uses the revised version of this index, published by Thompson in 1966.
How does the Index work in the Tales Online database?
For each tale included in the Tales Online database, motif numbers, their accompanying descriptors, characters and character roles, and settings are identified. Some tales have also been assigned a genre and age appropriateness rating, as well as miscellaneous keywords.
Beyond title text and full text searching, a Motif Search is also available with a Researcher or Institution subscription. Entering an appropriate motif number on this search page will retrieve all of the tales in the database which have been assigned that motif number. A list of major motif numbers and their associated short descriptors is available as a PDF file, allowing users to search the motif descriptors by keyword. Some tales are also tagged with motif variants that specify a more specific descriptor (see examples below).
Motif: A motif may refer to a character, action, setting, or object.
Descriptor: a short verbal explanation of what each motif is about.
Motif number: a shorthand way of referring to specific details found in folktales. These usually consist of a letter and then a series of numbers.
Exact motif number: A1142 has the descriptor “Origin of thunder,” meaning that a tale marked with motif A1142 includes or describes how thunder came to the world.
Variant motif number: A1142.1 has the descriptor “Deity’s voice makes thunder,” meaning that a tale marked with motif A1142.1 includes or describes how a deity’s voice causes thunder to come to the world.